Date: Tue, 17 Sep 1996 10:18:48 BST

From: David Britain dbritain[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]ESSEX.AC.UK

Subject: Re: your mail

On Mon, 16 Sep 1996 19:56:56 EDT Michael Montgomery wrote:

I am working on a unit on uptalk (the use of high intonation at the end

of declarative sentences) for my undergraduate class on language variation

but have been unable to find any bibliography. I seem to remember an item

or two in _American Speech_ but cannot locate it/them. Can anyone help me

with suggestions for material--readings, tapes, etc.?

Here are some references about uptalk (or High Rising Terminals) from various places:

New Zealand English:

Britain, David. (1992). Linguistic change in intonation: the use of High Rising Terminals in

New Zealand English. Language Variation and Change 4 77-104.

Britain, David and Newman, John. (1992). High Rising Terminals in New Zealand English.

Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1/2) 1-11.

Ainsworth, Helen. (1994). The emergence of the high rising terminal contour in the

speech of New Zealand children. Te Reo: Journal of the Linguistic Society of New

Zealand. 37 3-20.

Allan, Scott. (1990). The rise of New Zealand intonation. In Allan Bell and Janet Holmes

(eds.), New Zealand Ways of Speaking English. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 115-128.

American English:

Ching, Marvin. (1982). The question intonation in assertions. American Speech 57 95-107.

Australian English:

Dineen, Anne. (1992). High rise tones and Australian English intonation: a descriptive

problem. In Tom Dutton, Malcolm Ross and Darrell Tryon (eds.), The language game:

papers in memory of Donald C. Laycock. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Australian

National University. 115-124.

Allan, Keith. (1984). The component functions of the high rise terminal contour in

Australian declarative sentences. Australian Journal of Linguistics 4 19-32.

Guy, Gregory and Vonwiller, Julia. (1984). The meaning of an intonation in Australian

English. Australian Journal of Linguistics 4 1-17.

Guy, Gregory, Horvath, Barbara, Vonwiller, Julia, Daisley, Elaine, Rogers, Inge. (1986).

An intonation change in progress in Australian English. Language in Society 15 23-52.

Horvath, Barbara. (1985). Variation in Australian English: the sociolects of Sydney.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McGregor, R. (1980). The social distribution of an Australian English intonation contour

Working Papers of the Speech and Language Research Centre, School of English and

Linguistics, Macquarie University. 2 1-26.

Steele, Patti. (1996). A discourse approach to the function of Australian high rising tone

in narrative. Unpublished B.A. (Honours) Dissertation. Canberra: Department of

Linguistics. Australian National University.

Canadian English:

James, Eric., Mahut, Christopher and Latkiewicz, George. (1989). The investigation of an

apparently new intonation pattern in Toronto English. Information Communication

(Speech and Voice Society and Phonetics Laboratory, University of Toronto) 10 11-17.

Paddock, Harold. (1981). A dialect survey of Carbonear, Newfoundland. Urbana:

American Dialect Society.

HRTs in general:

Cruttenden, Alan. (1995). Rises in English. In J. Windsor Lewis (ed.), Studies in General

and English Phonetics: Essays in honour of Professor J. D. O Connor. London Routledge.


Hirschberg, Julia and Ward, Gregory. (1995). The interpretation of the high-rise question

contour in English. Journal of Pragmatics. 24 407-12.

Hope these are of some help...


Dr David J Britain

Department of Language and Linguistics

University of Essex

Wivenhoe Park



Great Britain CO4 3SQ


Telephone: +44 1206 872101

Fax: +44 1206 872085