End of ADS-L Digest - 7 Oct 1997 to 8 Oct 1997 ********************************************** Subject: ADS-L Digest - 8 Oct 1997 to 9 Oct 1997 There are 10 messages totalling 404 lines in this issue. Topics of the day: 1. ADS-L Digest - 7 Oct 1997 to 8 Oct 1997 2. dialect in literature 3. Widow's Weeds 4. womanist and feminist 5. The Lords Prayer/Ebonics (2) 6. Weeds 7. What's a chrome? 8. An R-full mess (2) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Date: Thu, 9 Oct 1997 00:54:15 -0400 From: Bryan Gick Subject: Re: ADS-L Digest - 7 Oct 1997 to 8 Oct 1997 > Any of these can be "voiced" (the voicing is phonetically realized by > its effect on the adjacent vowel tone; in fact I think a voiced click > per se is physically impossible), or nasalized (represented with an N > before the click letter), or aspirated (represented with an H after the > click letter, as in the name of the language). Nope, there are bona fide voiced clicks (even ones with various laryngeal qualities like laryngealization (creaky) and breathy voicing). The clicks use a "velaric ingressive" mechanism to produce airflow, meaning that there's a simultaneous velar tongue closure (as in k or g) and a second "place of articulation" closure at the lips (in the case of a "kiss"), the teeth (in the case of "tut-tut"), or the like. While the velar closure is held throughout, the tongue blade, cheeks or other movable parts pull away creating a "suction" between the velum and the more front closure. Then, when the front closure is released (either centrally or laterally), the air rushing in creates a popping sound. Then, after all this is done, the velar closure is released and on goes the utterance (whew!). The point of all this is that, regardless of what's going on in front of the velar closure, you're still essentially just holding a velar stop. So, depending on what you're doing with your glottis, you could be making a k, a kh, a g or an eng, as you see fit. Ask me tomorrow what this has to do with American dialects. Bryan /\------------------------------------------------------- [AT SYMBOL GOES HERE][AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]|Bryan Gick Department of Linguistics < >bgick[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]pantheon.yale.edu Yale University '/ (203)772-2549 and Haskins Laboratories W--------------------------------------------------------