Date: Wed, 12 Oct 1994 09:17:16 CST From: salikoko mufwene Subject: Re: -"had" Constructions In Message Wed, 12 Oct 1994 02:07:30 CDT, "Donald M. Lance" writes: >On a comparative/contrastive note, the discussed of these 'have' constructions >reminds me that 'be' and 'have'='own' use the same word in, I think, Swahili, >with sort of a dative construction in the latter use. In Lingala and Kikongo-Kituba, two languages I speak, the closest analog is combining the verb COME with the applicative suffix. The latter is used for benefactive as well as malefactive constructions. In cases more specific than 'occur', diverse verb bases may combine with the applicative. For instance, a car owner may complain that his/her child ruined their car 'on them'(?), or that a wreckless driver killed a pedestrian 'on them'(?), etc. These are kinds of statements where the speaker suggests that somebody other than the agent is victimized by the agent's action. Sali. Salikoko S. Mufwene University of Chicago Dept. of Linguistics 1010 East 59th Street Chicago, IL 60637 s-mufwene[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] 312-702-8531; fax: 312-702-9861