Date: Fri, 2 Jun 1995 13:06:58 -0400 From: TERRY IRONS Subject: Re: variants: markers, indexes, stereotypes? On Fri, 2 Jun 1995, Timothy C. Frazer wrote: > Somewhere, Labov classes variants in the following ways, tho my memory is > imperfect: > 1. Those that are not perceived by the community but are detectable as > variants by objective oberservation. > 2. Those that people respond to on something like a subjective reaction > test but can't describe (?) > 3. Those that people are overtly aware of, and can, say, imitate. > > I seem to recall that there are names for these: markers, indexes, > stereotypes? > > I thought this was in Sociolinguistic Patterns, 1972, but I can't find it. > CAn anyone help to correct my imperfect memory and also tell me where to > find it? I need this today! I'll come back online this afternoon. > Labov uses the terms indicators, markers, and stereotypes in his article "The Study of Language in its Social Context," Studium Generale 23 (1970): 30-87. The article is reprinted in Giglioli (ed.) Language and Social Context. They seem to correlate roughly with what you describe. Wolfram discusses the terms in his Dialects and American English, pp. 99-100. Terry (*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*) Terry Lynn Irons t.irons[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] Voice Mail: (606) 783-5164 Snail Mail: UPO 604 Morehead, KY 40351 (*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)=(*)