Date: Mon, 13 Jan 1997 03:57:38 -1000 From: Norman Roberts Subject: Re: IPA to Internet? >Does anybody know where I can find an IPA to legend? > Here is one I downloaded some time ago. It's rather long so I hope your mail server accepts it. sci.lang #38113 (11 more) [1] From: Georgy Pruss [1] Repost: FAQ: Representing IPA Phonetics in ASCII Date: Wed May 10 10:22:59 HST 1995 Organization: Zest Systems Lines: 524 Distribution: world NNTP-Posting-Host: X-Return-Path: zs!!georgy[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] Some people asked me to re-send it. Here you are. >Newsgroups: sci.lang,alt.usage.english >From: evan[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] (Evan Kirshenbaum) >Subject: FAQ: Representing IPA Phonetics in ASCII >Sender: news[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] (News Subsystem (Rigel)) >Message-ID: >Date: Mon, 9 Jan 1995 18:58:07 GMT >Reply-To: kirshenbaum[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] >Nntp-Posting-Host: >Organization: Hewlett-Packard Laboratories >Lines: 502 >Xref: sci.lang:16066 alt.usage.english:38835 > >[Last Modified, 4 Jan 1993] > >This article describes a standard scheme for representing IPA >transcriptions in ASCII for use in Usenet articles and email. The >following guidelines were kept in mind: > > o It should be usable for both phonemic and narrow phonetic > transcription. > > o It should be possible to represent *all* symbols and > diacritics in the IPA. > > o The previous guideline notwithstanding, it is expected that > (as in the past) most use will be in transcribing English, > so where tradeoffs are necessary, decisions should be made > in favor of ease of representation of phonemes which are > common in English. > > o The representation should be readable. > > o It should be possible to mechanically translate from the > representation to a character set which includes IPA. The > reverse would also be nice. > >In order to be able to represent a wide range of segments while making >common segments easy to type, we allow more than one representation >for a given segment. Each segment has an "explicit" representation, >which is a set of features between curly braces ("{" and "}"). Each >feature is represented as a three letter abbreviation taken from a >standardized set. The phoneme /b/ (a voiced, bilabial stop) could be >represented as /{vcd,blb,stp}/. A first cut at the feature set >appears in appendix A below. > >The word "tag" could thus be represented phonemically as > /{vls,alv,stp}{low,fnt,unr,vwl}{vcd,vel,stp}/ >and phonetically as > [{vls,asp,alv,stp}{low,fnt,lng,unr,vwl}{unx,vcd,vel,stp}] > >This works, but it's a bit of a pain. To simplify transcription, we >allow an "implicit" representation for a segment which consists of a >(generally alphabetic) symbol followed by diacritics. Thus /b/ stands >for /{vcd,blb,stp}/. Case is significant (/n/ and /N/ are different >segments). The segment symbols are given in appendix B below. > >The word "tag" can thus be represented phonemically as > /t&g/ > >The diacritics for a segment are represented between angle brackets >("<" and ">") and consist of symbols or features. (In the common case >where the diacritic symbol is a single character which does not encode >a segment, the brackets may be removed.) The features which the >diacritics map to override those of the segment. > >The word "tag" thus becomes narrowly > [t&g] >or > [t&<:>g] >or > [t&:g] > >Some diacritic symbols encode more than one feature set. Which one is >meant should be apparent from context. For example, "." stands for >"{rnd}" when attached to a vowel, but "{rfx}" when attached to a >consonant. > >Clicks are common to many languages (especially in Africa), but there >is no IPA diacritic that means "click". Rather than use up several >characters for clicks (which are infrequent in the languages most >often discussed), we instead use the diacritic "!" after the >homorganic unvoiced stop. Thus /t!/ (= /t/ = /{alv,clk}/) is the >sound commonly written "tsk" and used in English to show disapproval. > >The complete set of diacritic symbols appears in appendix C below. >Appendices D and E contain representations of segments more or less >ordered by feature (appendix D in tabular form, appendix E as a list). >Appendix F contains a list of all of the ASCII characters and the uses >they have been pressed to. > >For transcription of any specific language a group can by convention >alter the character mappings (as an example, for Spanish /R/ may be >better used to represent /{alv,trl}/ than /{mid,cnt,rzd,vwl}/). An >author may also press a little used symbol (for the language under >consideration) into service to highlight a distinction. Such an >alteration should be made explicitly to avoid confusion. > >The diacritics "+" and "=" and the segment symbols "$" and "%" are >explicitly left unspecified so that they can be used to mark >language-specific features (that are otherwise cumbersome to mark). >Such symbols can be assigned either by convention for a specific >language or in an ad-hoc manner by an individual author. > >Stress marks are prepended to the syllable they attach to. "'" >signals primary stress, "," signals secondary stress. Spaces should >be employed to separate words (cliticized words may be written >unseparated). When discussing single words, it may be helpful to >insert a space before each syllable that doesn't carry a >suprasegmental marker. > >The "I hear the secretary" for an American might be something like > /aI hir D[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] 'sEkrI,t&ri/ >while to an Englishman it might be more like > /aI hi[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] DI 'sEkr^tri/ > >Transcribing tone is harder. Here's an attempt. For register tone >languages (e.g., Hausa, Navajo), numbers should be used with one being >the lowest. Thus in Navajo, "1" is low tone and "2" is high. In >Yoruba "1" is low, "2" is mid, and "3" is high. The language's >"default" tone need not be specified. For contour tone languages >(e.g., Mandarin, Thai), there is generally a numeric system in place >(Mandarin: "1" is high, "2" is rising, "3" is falling rising, "4" is >falling). The tone indication should follow the syllable (vowel?). > >The symbol "#" is used to represent a syllable or word boundary. > >Appendix A. Feature Abbreviations >---------------------------------- > >vcd voiced nas nasal fnt front >vls voiceless orl oral cnt center > apr approximant bck back >blb bilabial vwl vowel >lbd labio-dental lat lateral unr unrounded >dnt dental ctl central rnd rounded >alv alveolar trl trill >rfx retroflex flp flap asp aspirated >pla palato-alveolar clk click unx unexploded >pal palatal ejc ejective syl syllabic >vel velar imp implosive mrm murmured >lbv labio-velar lng long >uvl uvular hgh high vzd velarized >phr pharyngeal smh semi-high lzd labialized >glt Glottal umd upper-mid pzd palatalized > mid mid rzd rhoticized >stp stop lmd lower-mid nzd nasalized >frc fricative low low fzd pharyngealized > > >Appendix B. Segment Symbols >---------------------------- > >This table lists the symbol, the associated feature set, and the >Unicode character code and name for the corresponding IPA character. >In some cases (e.g., /I/) there are multiple IPA characters in use for >the segment. I have listed both. In some cases (e.g. /j/), the IPA >symbol seems to be ambiguous (generally between an approximant and the >homorganic voiced fricative). > >The entries marked with "??" are those that I am least sure of. When >I have listed more than one possibility for a symbol, the first is my >current preference. > >a {low,cnt,unr,vwl} U+0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A >b {vcd,blb,stp} U+0062 LATIN SMALL LETTER B >c {vls,pal,stp} U+0063 LATIN SMALL LETTER C >d {vcd,alv,stp} U+0064 LATIN SMALL LETTER D >e {umd,fnt,urd,vwl} U+0065 LATIN SMALL LETTER E >f {vls,lbd,frc} U+0066 LATIN SMALL LETTER F >g {vcd,vel,stp} U+0067 LATIN SMALL LETTER G > U+0261 LATIN SMALL LETTER SCRIPT G >h {glt,apr} U+0068 LATIN SMALL LETTER H >i {hgh,fnt,unr,vwl} U+0069 LATIN SMALL LETTER I >j {pal,apr}/{vcd,pal,frc} U+006A LATIN SMALL LETTER J >k {vls,vel,stp} U+006B LATIN SMALL LETTER K >l {vcd,alv,lat} U+006C LATIN SMALL LETTER L >m {blb,nas} U+006D LATIN SMALL LETTER M >n {alv,nas} U+006E LATIN SMALL LETTER N >o {umd,bck,rnd,vwl} U+006F LATIN SMALL LETTER O >p {vls,blb,stp} U+0070 LATIN SMALL LETTER P >q {vls,uvl,stp} U+0071 LATIN SMALL LETTER Q >r {alv,apr} U+0279 LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED R >s {vls,alv,frc} U+0073 LATIN SMALL LETTER S >t {vls,alv,stp} U+0074 LATIN SMALL LETTER T >u {hgh,bck,rnd,vwl} U+0075 LATIN SMALL LETTER U >v {vcd,lbd,frc} U+0076 LATIN SMALL LETTER V >w {lbv,apr}/{vcd,lbv,frc} U+0077 LATIN SMALL LETTER W >x {vls,vel,frc} U+0078 LATIN SMALL LETTER X >y {hgh,fnt,rnd,vwl} U+0079 LATIN SMALL LETTER Y >z {vcd,alv,frc} U+007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z > >A {low,bck,unr,vwl} U+0251 LATIN SMALL LETTER SCRIPT A >B {vcd,blb,frc} U+03B2 GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA >C {vls,pal,frc} U+00E7 LATIN SMALL LETTER C CEDILLA >D {vcd,dnt,frc} U+00F0 LATIN SMALL LETTER ETH >E {lmd,fnt,unr,vwl} U+025B LATIN SMALL LETTER EPSILON >F -- Unused -- >G {vcd,uvl,stp} U+0262 LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL G >H {vls,phr,frc} U+0127 LATIN SMALL LETTER H BAR >I {smh,fnt,unr,vwl} U+026A LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL I > U+0269 LATIN SMALL LETTER IOTA >J {vcd,pal,stp} U+025F LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS J BAR >K -- Unused -- >L {vcd,vel,lat} ?? U+026B LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH MIDDLE TILDE > U+029F LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL L > {vls,alv,lat,frc} ?? U+026C LATIN SMALL LETTER L BELT >M {lbd,nas} U+0271 LATIN SMALL LETTER M HOOK >N {vel,nas} U+014B LATIN SMALL LETTER ENG >O {lmd,bck,rnd,vwl} U+0254 LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN O >P {vls,blb,frc} U+03A6 GREEK CAPITAL LETTER PHI >Q {vcd,vel,frc} U+0263 LATIN SMALL LETTER GAMMA >R {mid,cnt,rzd,vwl} ?? U+025A LATIN SMALL LETTER SCHWA HOOK > {alv,trl} ?? U+0280 LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL R >S {vls,pla,frc} U+0283 LATIN SMALL LETTER ESH >T {vls,dnt,frc} U+03B8 GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA >U {smh,bck,rnd,vwl} U+028A LATIN SMALL LETTER UPSILON > U+0277 LATIN SMALL LETTER CLOSED OMEGA >V {lmd,bck,unr,vwl} U+028C LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED V >W {lmd,fnt,rnd,vwl} ?? U+0153 LATIN SMALL LETTER O E >X {vls,uvl,frc} U+03C7 GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI >Y {umd,fnt,rnd,vwl} ?? U+00F8 LATIN SMALL LETTER O SLASH > {lmd,fnt,rnd,vwl} ?? U+0153 LATIN SMALL LETTER O E >Z {vcd,pla,frc} U+0292 LATIN SMALL LETTER YOGH > >? {glt,stp} U+0294 LATIN SMALL LETTER GLOTTAL STOP >[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] {mid,cnt,unr,vwl} U+0259 LATIN SMALL LETTER SCHWA >& {low,fnt,unr,vwl} U+00E6 LATIN SMALL LETTER A E >* {vcd,alv,flp} U+027E LATIN SMALL LETTER FISHHOOK R >% -- Ad Hoc Segment -- >$ -- Ad Hoc Segment -- > >Appendix C. Diacritics >----------------------- > >~ Vowels: {nzd} U+0303 NON-SPACING TILDE > Consonants: {vzd} U+0334 NON-SPACING TILDE OVERLAY >: {lng} U+02D0 MODIFIER LETTER TRIANGULAR COLON >- Vowels: {unr} -- No equivalent -- > Consonants: {syl} U+0329 NON-SPACING VERTICAL LINE BELOW >! {clk} -- No equivalent -- >. Vowels: {rnd} -- No equivalent -- > Consonants: {rfx} U+0322 NON-SPACING RETROFLEX HOOK BELOW > U+0323 NON-SPACING DOT BELOW >` Voicless: {ejc} U+02BC MODIFIER LETTER APOSTROPHE > Voiced: {imp} -- No equivalent -- >[ {dnt} U+032A NON-SPACING BRIDGE BELOW >; {pzd} U+02B2 MODIFIER LETTER SMALL J > U+0321 NON-SPACING PALATALIZED HOOK BELOW >" Vowels: {cnt} -- No equivalent -- > Consonants: {uvl} -- No equivalent -- >^ {pal} -- No equivalent -- >+ -- Add Hoc Diacritic -- >= -- Add Hoc Diacritic -- > {fzd} U+0334 NON-SPACING TILDE OVERLAY > {asp} U+02B0 MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H > {unx} ?? U+02DA SPACING RING ABOVE > {vls} ?? U+0325 NON-SPACING RING BELOW > {rzd} U+02B3 MODIFIER LETTER SMALL R > {lzd} U+02B7 MODIFIER LETTER SMALL W > U+032B NON-SPACING INVERTED DOUBLE ARCH BELOW > {mrm} U+02B1 MODIFIER LETTER SMALL H HOOK > U+0324 NON-SPACING DOUBLE DOT BELOW > >Appendix D. Segment Table >-------------------------- > > blb-- -lbd-- --dnt-- --alv-- -rfx- -pla-- --pal--- --vel-- -----uvl----- > >nas m M n[ n n. n^ N n" >stp p b t[ d[ t d t. d. c J k g q G >frc F V f v T D s z s. z. S Z C C x Q X g" >apr r r[ r r. j j g" >lat l[ l l. l^ L >trl b r r" >flp * *. >ejc p` t[` t` c` k' >imp b` d` d` J` g` q` G` >clk p! t! c! c! k! > > > ---- lbv ---- --phr-- ---glt--- > >nas n alv lat frc: s z >stp t d ? lat flp: * >frc w w H H h lat clk: l! >apr w h > > > ----- unr ----- unr ----- rnd ----- > fnt cnt bck cnt fnt cnt bck > rzd >hgh i i" u- y u" u >smh I I. U >umd e [AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] o- R Y o >mid [AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] R [AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]. >lmd E V" V W O" O >low & a A &. a. A. > > >Appendix E. Segment List >------------------------- > >Where a segment requires more than one character to represent, and >there is a single IPA character, the Unicode code and name is noted. >If I couldn't find an IPA symbol for a segment, I left it out. > >{blb,nas} /m/ >{vls,blb,stp} /p/ >{vcd,blb,stp} /b/ >{vls,blb,frc} /F/ >{vcd,blb,frc} /V/ >{blb,trl} /b/ U+0299 LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL B >{blb,imp} /b`/ U+0253 LATIN SMALL LETTER B HOOK >{blb,ejc} /p`/ >{blb,clk} /p!/ U+0298 LATIN LETTER BULSEYE > >{lbd,nas} /M/ >{vls,lbd,frc} /f/ >{vcd,lbd,frc} /v/ >{lbd,apr} /r/ U+028B LATIN SMALL LETTER SCRIPT V > >{dnt,nas} /n[/ >{vls,dnt,stp} /t[/ >{vcd,dnt,stp} /d[/ >{vls,dnt,frc} /T/ >{vcd,dnt,frc} /D/ >{dnt,apr} /r[/ >{dnt,lat} /l[/ >{dnt,imp} /d`/ (same as {alv,imp}) >{dnt,ejc} /t[`/ >{dnt,clk} /t!/ U+0287 LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED T > (by rights this should be alveolar, but the alveolar > and palatal clicks use the same symbol (/c!/)) > >{alv,nas} /n/ >{vls,alv,stp} /t/ >{vcd,alv,stp} /d/ >{vls,alv,frc} /s/ >{vcd,alv,frc} /z/ >{alv,apr} /r/ >{alv,lat} /l/ >{alv,trl} /r/ U+0072 LATIN SMALL LETTER R > (perhaps /R/) >{alv,flp} /*/ >{vls,alv,lat,frc} /s/ U+026C LAIN SMALL LETTER L BELT >{vcd,alv,lat,frc} /z/ U+026E LATIN SMALL LETTER L YOGH >{alv,imp} /d`/ U+0257 LATIN SMALL LETTER D HOOK >{alv,ejc} /t`/ >{alv,clk} /c!/ (same as {pal,clk}) > >{rfx,nas} /n./ U+0273 LATIN SMALL LETTER N RETROFLEX HOOK >{vls,rfx,stp} /t./ U+0288 LATIN SMALL LETTER T RETROFLEX HOOK >{vcd,rfx,stp} /d./ U+0256 LATIN SMALL LETTER D RETROFLEX HOOK >{vls,rfx,frc} /s./ U+0282 LATIN SMALL LETTER S HOOK >{vcd,rfx,frc} /z./ U+0290 LATIN SMALL LETTER Z RETROFLEX HOOK >{rfx,apr} /r./ U+027B LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED R HOOK >{rfx,lat} /l./ U+026D LATIN SMALL LETTER L RETROFLEX HOOK >{rfx,flp} /*./ U+027D LATIN SMALL LETTER R HOOK > >{vls,pla,frc} /S/ >{vcd,pla,frc} /Z/ > >{pal,nas} /n^/ >{vls,pal,stp} /c/ >{vcd,pal,stp} /J/ >{vls,pal,frc} /C/ >{vcd,pal,frc} /C/ U+029D LATIN SMALL LETTER CROSSED-TAIL J > (perhaps /j/ (same as {pal,apr})) > >{pal,apr} /j/ >{rnd,pal,apr} /j/ U+0265 LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED H >{pal,lat} /l^/ U+028E LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED Y >{pal,imp} /J`/ U+0284 LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS J BAR HOOK >{pal,clk} /c!/ U+0297 LATIN LETTER STRETCHED C > >{vel,nas} /N/ >{vls,vel,stp} /k/ >{vcd,vel,stp} /g/ >{vls,vel,frc} /x/ >{vcd,vel,frc} /Q/ >{vel,apr} /j/ U+0270 LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED M WITH LONG > LEG >{vel,lat} /L/ >{vel,imp} /g`/ U+0260 LATIN SMALL LETTER G HOOK >{vel,ejc} /k'/ >{vel,clk} /k!/ U+029E LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED K > >{lbv,nas} /n/ Written as "ng" with tie above >{vls,lbv,stp} /t/ Written as "kp" with tie above >{vcd,lbv,stp} /d/ Written as "gb" with tie above >{vls,lbv,frc} /w/ U+028D LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED W >{vcd,lbv,frc} /w/ (same as {lbv,apr}) >{lbv,apr} /w/ > >{uvl,nas} /n"/ U+0274 LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL N >{vls,uvl,stp} /q/ >{vcd,uvl,stp} /G/ >{vls,uvl,frc} /X/ U+03C7 GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI >{vcd,uvl,frc} /g"/ (same as {uvl,apr}) >{uvl,apr} /g"/ U+0281 LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL INVERTED R >{uvl,trl} /r"/ U+0280 LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL R >{vls,uvl,imp} /q`/ U+02A0 LATIN SMALL LETTER Q HOOK >{vcd,uvl,imp} /G`/ U+029B LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL G HOOK > >{vls,phr,frc} /H/ >{vcd,phr,frc} /H/ U+0295 LATIN LETTER REVERSED GLOTTAL STOP > >{glt,stp} /?/ >{glt,apr} /h/ >{mrm,glt,frc} /h/ U+0266 LATIN SMALL LETTER H HOOK > >{vcd,lat,flp} /*/ U+027A LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED R WITH LONG > LEG >{lat,clk} /l!/ U+0296 LATIN LETTER INVERTED GLOTTAL STOP > >{hgh,fnt,unr,vwl} /i/ >{hgh,fnt,rnd,vwl} /y/ >{smh,fnt,unr,vwl} /I/ >{smh,fnt,rnd,vwl} /I./ U+028F LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL Y >{umd,fnt,unr,vwl} /e/ >{umd,fnt,rnd,vwl} /Y/ >{lmd,fnt,unr,vwl} /E/ >{lmd,fnt,rnd,vwl} /W/ >{low,fnt,unr,vwl} /&/ >{low,fnt,rnd,vwl} /&./ U+0276 LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL O E > >{hgh,cnt,unr,vwl} /i"/ U+0268 LATIN SMALL LETTER BARRED I >{hgh,cnt,rnd,vwl} /u"/ U+0289 LATIN SMALL LETTER U BAR >{umd,cnt,unr,vwl} /[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]/ U+0258 LATIN SMALL LETTER REVERSED E >{umd,cnt,unr,rzd,vwl} /R/ U+025D LATIN SMALL LETTER REVERSED EPSILON > HOOK >{mid,cnt,unr,vwl} /[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]/ >{mid,cnt,unr,rzd,vwl} /R/ >{mid,cnt,rnd,vwl} /[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]./ U+0275 LATIN SMALL LETTER BARRED O >{lmd,cnt,unr,vwl} /V"/ U+025C LATIN SMALL LETTER REVERSED EPSILON >{lmd,cnt,rnd,vwl} /O"/ U+025E LATIN SMALL LETTER CLOSED REVERSED > EPSILON >{low,cnt,unr,vwl} /a/ U+0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A > >{hgh,bck,unr,vwl} /u-/ U+026F LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED M >{hgh,bck,rnd,vwl} /u/ >{umd,bck,unr,vwl} /o-/ U+0264 LATIN SMALL LETTER BABY GAMMA >{umd,bck,rnd,vwl} /o/ >{lmd,bck,unr,vwl} /V/ >{lmd,bck,rnd,vwl} /O/ >{low,bck,unr,vwl} /A/ >{low,bck,rnd,vwl} /A./ U+0252 LATIN SMALL LETTER TURNED SCRIPT A > >Appendix F. ASCII Table >------------------------ >In the following table, the following abbreviations are used: > P: punctuation > S: segment > D: diacritic > : diacritic that must be delimited > > >sp P: Separate words and segments Q S: {vcd,vel,frc} >! D: {clk} R S: {mid,cnt,rzd,vwl} >" D Vowel: {cnt} S S: {vls,pla,frc} > Cons: {uvl} T S: {vls,dnt,frc} ># Unused U S: {smh,bck,rnd,vwl} >$ S: Ad Hoc V S: {lmd,bck,unr,vwl} >% S: Ad Hoc W S: {lmd,fnt,rnd,vwl} >& S: {low,fnt,unr,vwl} X S: {vls,uvl,frc} >' P: Primary stress Y S: {umd,fnt,rnd,vwl} >( Unused Z S: {vcd,pla,frc} >) Unused [ P: Phonetic delimiter >* S: {vcd,lav,flp} D: {dnt} >+ D: Ad Hoc \ Unused >, P: Secondary stress ] P: Phonetic delimiter >- D: Vowel: {unr} ^ D: {pal} > Cons: {syl} _ Unused >. D: Vowel: {rnd} ` D Voiced: {imp} > Cons: {rfx} Voiceless: {ejc} >/ P: Phonemic delimiter a S: {low,cnt,unr,vwl} >0 Unused b S: {vcd,blb,stp} >1 P: Tone 1 c S: {vls,pal,stp} >2 P: Tone 2 d S: {vcd,alv,stp} >3 P: Tone 3 e S: {umd,fnt,urd,vwl} >4 P: Tone 4 f S: {vls,lbd,frc} >5 Unused g S: {vcd,vel,stp} >6 Unused h S: {glt,apr} >7 Unused : {asp} >8 Unused i S: {hgh,fnt,unr,vwl} >9 Unused j S: {pal,apr}/{vcd,pal,frc} >: D: {lng} : {pzd} >; D: {pzd} k S: {vls,vel,stp} >< P: Diacritic delimiter l S: {vcd,alv,lat} >= D: Ad Hoc m S: {blb,nas} >> P: Diacritic delimiter n S: {alv,nas} >? S: {glt,stp} o S: {umd,bck,rnd,vwl} > : {mrm} >[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] S: {mid,cnt,unr,vwl} : {unx} >A S: {low,bck,unr,vwl} p S: {vls,blb,stp} >B S: {vcd,blb,frc} q S: {vls,uvl,stp} >C S: {vls,pal,frc} r S: {alv,apr} >D S: {vcd,dnt,frc} : {rzd} >E S: {lmd,fnt,unr,vwl} s S: {vls,alv,frc} >F Unused t S: {vls,alv,stp} >G S: {vcd,uvl,stp} u S: {hgh,bck,rnd,vwl} >H S: {vls,phr,frc} v S: {vcd,lbd,frc} > : {fzd} w S: {lbv,apr}/{vcd,lbv,frc} >I S: {smh,fnt,unr,vwl} : {lzd} >J S: {vcd,pal,stp} x S: {vls,vel,frc} >K Unused y S: {hgh,fnt,rnd,vwl} >L S: {vcd,vel,lat} z S: {vcd,alv,frc} >M S: {lbd,nas} { P: Feature set delimiter >N S: {vel,nas} | Unused >O S: {lmd,bck,rnd,vwl} } P: Feature set delimiter >P S: {vls,blb,frc} ~ D: Cons: {vzd} > Vowel: {nzd} > -- Georgy ---------------------------------------------------------------- |\ _,,,---,,_ | email: georgy[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] ZZZzz /,`.-'`' -. ;-;;,_ | email: georgy[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] |,4- ) )-,_. ,\ ( `'-' | phone: +7 044 412 39 02 '---''(_/--' `-'\_) |