Date: Thu, 20 Jan 1994 08:05:00 EST From: "Dennis.Preston" <22709MGR[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]MSU.BITNET> Subject: Re: AWAKE! Etc. Dan Goodman's query about code-switching reminds me of some of our earlier conversations on this list concerning the sociolinguistic-psycholinguistic basis of different varieties. I will return to that. First, of course, one might (more or less) arbitrarily decide what a 'code' is and then determine code-switching. In case three (assuming 'takke' has not been incorporated into English), I think nearly everybody would agree that moving from one langauge to another is code-switching. In case one, if 'black tea' and 'regular' tea are geogrphical alternates, one might also suggest that moving from one regional variety to another is a good example of code-switching. In case three (where Manhattan KANSAS is required (pragmatically)), I suspect that many would deny such shifts code-switching status. Consider a simpler situation: My wife asks 'Who called?' and I answer 'Rudy' (because we know only on e Rudy; she later asks 'Who called?' and I answer 'Bill Kretzschmar' (because we know lots of Bills). It would be a big stretch to say that I was code-switching between first and first plus last name reference. Left out, however, are cases of switching along a stylistic continuum. 'Have you eaten yet'; 'Did you eat yet'; 'Dija eachet'; 'Jeechet.' Do you want to name positions on such a continuum different 'codes'? If so, these are examples of switching. (I'm not fond of that decision for reasons I'll come to.) Finally, how ab out the forms of switching known as 'metaphjoric'? IN these, one appears to move to another 'vareity' not because of external pressures (e.g., a more or less formal situation) but because of an internal desire to make some point or even accomplish some action (e.g., speaking more casually to let interlocutors know you are just plain folks). And, just like in discussions of metaphor in general, when do such shifts become so conventionalized that they are no longer seen as metaphoric (in which case, they might no longer be examples of code switching). Really finally, we might devise a more formal approach to code-switching if we only knew a little more about the psycholinguistics of variety. Although such research has been common in SLA and bilingual studies, it seems to have been short-changed by Chomskean declarations that every style in every speaker is a 'different grammar.' (That is a necessary construct, of course, is one needs an ideal native speaker/hearer.) If you don't believe that (and Occam and I don't), then there are interesting possibilities for investigation. When is there a psycholinguitically different grammar. If not between styles, between what? Maybe there are 'core' versus 'peripheral' grammatical differences in variety differences (intra- and inter-speaker). I don't know what code-switching is becuase I don't know what a code is. Dennis Preston <22709mgr[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]msu.bitnet>