Date: Fri, 26 Apr 1996 21:50:53 -0400 From: Bryan Gick Subject: Intrusive [l] Dear Paul et al.- My apologies for the 100-plus-line reply (I guarantee that by the end of it you won't have unwittingly purchased a single magazine), but it seems there's been lots of interest in this in the last couple days, and since Beth has suggested I'm the one to ask, I figure I'll try to share what knowledge I've managed to gather on the subject. I've been investigating the "intrusive [l]" (I am mostly interested in those cases where epenthesis is arguably syllabically motivated..e.g. "i saw[l]it," "He's draw[l]ing a picture..") for about...oh, 6 or 7 years now. It's got some very interesting and surprisingly far-reaching implications as an example of a heretofore all-but-unknown hiatus consonant in English (not least significant of which is to call into question any non-phonologically motivated accounts of intrusive [r]). I'd be very interested in knowing whether there are any materials out there that have escaped my view (make that, _how much_ of what's out there has escaped my view). I've edited down (apologies to the editees) those responses to Paul's original question that had been posted as of this morning, and I'll give specific comments where I can.. but to save myself some time, i've tacked on at the end of this message a version of an abstract (to go out soon) containing some relevant info, including some of the very few references that I've found to be of interest. My work on this at present involves mostly experimental phonology work (primarily articulatory) on hiatus phenomena and glides and such. I intend to present the L stuff as soon as possible (possibly at ESCOL, pending acceptance). Anyone interested in this and similar phenomena can either contact me personally, look on my web page for updates (I haven't actually gotten it up and running as yet, but when I do, it'll be at: ) or wait (with crossed fingers) for the publication. Here's some of what has been said so far: > ---------------------------------------------------------------------- > From: Paul Fallon > Subject: Epenthetic [l] in _home_ > I've recently become aware of an epenthetic velarized [l] (el) in the > word _home_ ... Can anyone guide me to any relevent literature or > date of discussion on this list so I can search the logs? > The speakers who do this are from Maryland and Pennsylvania. (Anywhere > else?) ... Best, > Paul Fallon ***For this kind of coda stuff (I've collected "Hal nal, braln cal?" in Philly), Sherry Ash's paper and dissertation (see refs below) are good. She's concerned mostly with the converse, but closely intertwined, phenomenon of "/l/-vocalization." - BWG. > ------------------------------ > From: simon[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]CVAX.IPFW.INDIANA.EDU > Bryan Gick has done work on what he describes as "intrusive l". > Contact him at bryan.gick[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] > beth > -------------------------------- > From: Wayne Glowka > Last night I was reading a student paper. Instead of "hooves" (a possible > plural of "hoof"), the student wrote "hulves." I do not know where he > comes from. > Wayne Glowka Georgia College ***there are lots of examples of similar spelling errors in John Lutz' (unpublished) paper, taken from H.S. students at the Ohio/WV/KY juncture.I also have lots of spelling errors of philly school kids (saw=sol, etc.). I'd be interested to know where this student is from, if its no trouble-BWG > ------------------------------ > From: "Dale F.Coye" > ... This is especially common in black English, but I have also heard it > in SE Pa. > Dale Coye ***In my experience the two, though similar, show some difft behaviors-BWG >------------------------------ > From: "David Bergdahl (614) 593-2783" > For the longest time I've noticed a velarized reflex of an epenthetic [l] > in one word in my own speech, Oklahoma. > David Bergdahl > Ohio University / Athens ***Are you originally from Athens? If so, your right in the thick of it-BWG > ------------------------------ > From: Samuel Jones > ... part of the reason for the epenthetic "l" may have to > do with the diphthonging of the "O"[o + short "u"]. As the lips round > and closure proceeds, the lower jaw rises. Inside the mouth, the tongue > also rises ... the apex of the tongue moves quite close to the > palatal or alveolar position needed for the lateral continuant "L"... > DR. SAMUEL M. JONES > University of Wisconsin-Madison ***as far as i've been able to gather, there's very little going on in the realm of the tongue tip gesture that's significant in the coda [l]'s, underlying or otherwise. This fact is actually central to a coherent account of the "merger" (say, of "draw/drawl") having occured at all.. I am, though, convinced that articulatory properties are decidedly more than incidentally involved in such an account. - BWG -------------------------------------------------------- "The Intrusive L" Bryan Gick Yale University, Department of Linguistics (and Haskins Laboratories). (preliminary abstract, copyright Bryan W. Gick, 1996) In this paper I shall discuss a very widespread and linguistically highly significant yet almost completely unnoticed phenomenon of English speech that is, to the best of my knowledge, utterly unique to American dialects*. After a long-standing tradition of study of a parallel phenomenon well known in dialects of English - intrusive (and linking) R - I refer to it as the "intrusive L" (after Gick, 1991). The intrusive L, to those who have heard it, is very similar to the intrusive R of many dialects of English (e.g. "I saw[r]it," "draw[r]ing"), and is the quite unmistakable "intrusion" or epenthesis of a "clear" [l] into the hiatus between a low vowel (i.e., [a] or "open o," though these two are merged in many of the L-intruding dialects) and a following vowel, thus: "saw it" becomes "saw[l]it," "drawing" and "drawling" merge into "draw[l]ing," and the expression "awe inspiring" is often reanalyzed as "all inspiring." Perhaps the most surprising fact about the intrusive L is its almost complete lack of recognition in either decriptive or analytical terms, despite its distinctive nature and its broad distribution throughout some of the most thoroughly studied linguistic regions of America (it is attested, to the best of my knowledge, only in unpublished studies by this author and a few others - Lutz, 1984; Gick, 1991; Miller, 1993 - as extending at least from Philadelphia through much of Southern and Central Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, across Southern Ohio and continuing strongly through the Ohio/West Virginia/Kentucky tri-state area, and surely beyond). Until now, the "hiatus consonant" market has been completely dominated by discussion of intrusive R (surely because of its marked presence in prestige dialects of Southern England). The present study of the implications of intrusive L will (briefly) call upon recent work in both theoretical and laboratory (articulatory) phonology to better understand the phenomenon itself and to show that these different intrusive consonants in English are in some sense instances of the same phenomenon - that this phenomenon can no longer simply be explained away as a one- off lexical anomaly, but must be seen as driven by a much more general tendency of the English language. *the only similar case to my knowledge outside of the U.S. is in the dialect of Bristol, England. There are some (perhaps damning) differences, but it presents an interesting parallel. The single extensive work on this dialect to my knowledge is in German (Weissmann, 1970). _____________ Some References: Ash, Sharon. 1982. "The Vocalization of Intervocalic /l/ in Philadelphia." SECOL Review 6:162-175. Browman, Catherine P. and Louis Goldstein. 1992. "Articulatory Phonology: An Overview." Phonetica 49:155-180. Gick, Bryan. 1991. A Phonologically Motivated Theory of Intrusive Consonants and Related Phenomena in English. Unpublished thesis, Edinburgh U. Lutz, John. A Study of a Midwestern Dialect Using a Computational Model for Linguistic Variation. Unpublished thesis, Harvard U. McCarthy, John. 1993. "A Case of Surface Constraint Violation." Canadian Journal of Linguistics 38:169-195. Miller, Corey. 1993. "Intrusive l in Delaware English." (unpublished) paper presented at NWAVE 22, Ottowa. Sproat, Richard and Osamu Fujimura. 1993. "Allophonic Variation in English /l/ and Its Implications for Phonetic Implementation." Journal of Phonetics 21:291-311. Weissmann, E. 1970. "Phonematische Analyse des Stadtdialektes von Bristol." Phonetica 21:151-181,211-240.