Date: Sun, 9 Apr 1995 18:28:12 EDT From: flanigan[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]OUVAXA.CATS.OHIOU.EDU Subject: needs+past participle Ohio University Electronic Communication Date: 09-Apr-1995 06:27pm EST To: Remote Addressee ( _mx%"ads-l[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]" ) From: Beverly Flanigan Dept: Linguistics FLANIGAN Tel No: Subject: needs+past participle My surveys on the use of "needs + past participle" (as in "needs washed") narrow the distribution more than Preston's, Murray's, et al. I've collected data over the past five years or more, using Trudgill's questionnaire (in an article reprinted in _On Dialect_, NYU Press, 1983), and I get native speaker use of this form _only_ from South Midland speakers. Ohio cuts nicely into three regions: Northern (Cleveland), North Midland (Columbus), and South Midland (Cincinnati to Athens), giving me students from all over the state and outside. No one from Columbus northward (including Akron) has ever reported using "needs+past part.", although some have heard it, principally down here in the foothills of Appalachia (/AEp[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]lAEtch[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]/ to the natives, by the way). If they haven't heard it, they call it "foreign"; if they have, they ridicule it as "hillbilly." Native users, by the way, often report that they had never heard any alternate form before going away to college or moving away; contra Murray, I've never had a student pretend not to know it while actually using it (perhaps because of the privacy of a written questionnaire, but we openly discuss the forms afterwards too). The same goes for "positive anymore"--again, no denials, but this gets a bit wider distribution, including Akron (perhaps from in-migrants?) but not Columbus. I don't recall hearing it in Bloomington, Indiana, though; perhaps the spread from Penn. and Appalachia doesn't extend that far, just as "needs+past part." doesn't reach to Louisville? Most importantly, I don't see either of these forms as North Midland, at least not in my (many) Columbus-area informants. Beverly Flanigan Ohio University Received: 09-Apr-1995 06:28pm