Date: Sat, 8 Apr 1995 21:46:00 EDT From: "Dennis.Preston" <22709MGR[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]MSU.EDU> Subject: Re: needs + present participle I'm a little puzzled by the recent suggestion that needs+past part. has a distribution that is ragged or unknown. It seems that we have not kept needs+past part. and needs+pres.part. straight. Indeed, several people have indicated unfamiliarity with Needs Washing while others (from the same region) have found it normal. That is surely not the case with needs+past part. It has its origins in Scots (Scots-Irish), spreads from Western Pennsylvania over, roughly, the area known as North Midlands. A little farther North (e.g., southern Michigan), and it is unknown (my undergraduates at MSU think it is non-native); a little farther South, the same (when I was a Louisville kid, I never heard it). The only mixed reports we have heard (predictably) are from such outlandish places as Oregon where pockets of immigrants from North or South Midlands keep old speech practices alive even into later generations. We called that stuff with Jello and other crap in it Jello Mold; I wouldn't eat it when I was a kid, and I won't eat it now (just in case you have me over). Ambrosia is a young adult term for me, and I can't recall when I ran into it. It was only a little more palatable than Jello Mold as I recall. I can't believe I am writing about this food stuff any more than I can believe that peple eat bean sandwiches. Must be the Hungarian in me. How about the distribution of at least something the rest of us could eat? What do you call Cabbage Rolls. We called then Stuffed Cabbage (calqued from Hungarian), but I have heard them called Pigs in a Blanket (which, for me, were horrible store-bought dough wrapped around hot dogs and baked - UGH!). Do Poles out there ever loan-translate Cabbage Rolls (I suppose it would be Little Doves or Pigeons)? OK, no winners. The Southern Shift version of Preston is [pre[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]stIn] (where [e] is relatively tense and forward (the raising of peripheral [E]) and in-glided. The [I] in the second syllable does not raise (and in-glide) since its non-stressed status prevents it from being interpreted as a peripheral. Of course, the allegro (or informal) version would be [pre[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]s?N] where [?] is the glottal and [N] is a syllabic (but that would have been for extra credit). 22709mgr[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE] changing to preston[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]