Date: Sun, 6 Apr 1997 15:11:34 -0400
From: "Barry A. Popik" Bapopik[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]AOL.COM
Subject: "Color Line" (part three--1874-75 Jackson, MS newspaper)

It'll be at least another week before I can check the New Orleans
Picayune, Richmond Courier, and Atlanta Constitution in the Columbia
University library.
The Library of Congress had The Weekly Clarion of Jackson, Mississippi
from the middle of 1874, and "color line" is all over the place. It's
certainly the "soccer mom" WOTY of 1874-75, and Allan Metcalf and David
Barnhart should include it in their upcoming book.
"Mr. Nordhoff's Letters" to the New York Herald were mentioned by The
Weekly Clarion on 30 June 1875, pg. 2, col. 3 and reprinted that day and
other days; this was the subject of the previously posted "Color Line--part
The following are all from the WEEKLY CLARION of Jackson, Mississippi.

13 August 1874, pg. 2, col. 2, "What the Vicksburg Election Teaches."
(...) The election has taught these same arrogant leaders the old
lesson, that "pride goes before a fall." Protesting heretofore against the
"color line," it was plainly to be seen by the complexion of their ticket
that they had themselves drawn it in their own party. (...)
A "White Line" paper is needed very much in Jackson, and some
enterprising man of brains and experience in the profession, could do well by
investing there. (...)
Apropos ofthe "color line" as a political slogan, the Vicksburger is
mistaken in intimating that we have ever advocated it. We had supposed our
past course for which we have been no litle censured, had always proved the
reverse. We have deprecated it from the very beginning of Reconstruction, as
our readers well know....

27 August 1874, pg. 1, col. 6.
The Color Line.
From the Central Star.
(...) As grave as are the evils that afflict the body politic we feel
assured that they will be aggravated rather than diminished by the
organization of parties "on the color line."

27 August 1874, pg. 2, col. 2.
The Question of the "Color Line."
(...) A white man's league to deprive the colored man of the enjoyment
of the privileges ofthe government is as repgnant to this fundamental
doctrine of popular government, as the Native American league which was
formed some years ago to proscribe foreigners and Catholics. One is the
"color line"--the other was the "Native American line."

3 September 1874, pg. 3, col. 2.
A Strong Protest Against It.
From the Coplahan.
MESSRS. EDITORS: The most of the COnservative papers, including yours,
which fall under my eyes, are now advocating the formation of White Leagues
and the adoption of the "Color Line." (...)

10 September 1874, pg. 2, col. 6.
Words in Season.
From the Holly Springs Reporter.
In the excited State of the public mind caused by the unexpected
presentation of the "Color Line" question for discussion, we earnestly urge
all people to exercise prudence, good judgment, and a conservative course.

10 September 1874, pg. 2, col. 6.
Card from Ex-Gov. Brown.
EDITORS OF THE CLARION.--In a brief paragraph in your last week's issue,
you credit me with having caused the abandonment of a purpose to establish a
"Color Line League" in this neighborhood. You do me honors over much. I do
not think there has ever been a disposition among my neighbors to establish
such a "line." We are getting along very well, and all we ask of the outside
world is to let us alone. (...) I have been outspoken from the beginning
against the "White League," otherwise called the "color line." (...) A. G.

10 September 1874, pg. 2, col. 2.
The New Departure.
(...) The Color Line, as do all conflicts of race, stirs the passions of
the human heart to its profoundest depths.

19 November 1874, pg. 2, col. 2.
"The Color Line."
(argument with the Pascagoula Star--ed.)

28 January 1875, pg. 2, col. 3.
Drawing the Color Line.
Professing to depreciate the color line, Gov. Ames has done all that his
ingenuity is capable of originating to create it. (...)

18 February 1875, pg. 2, col. 8.
(...) We can state to the (Summit) Times that we have labored too
earnestly to prevent the division of parties in this State on the "color
line," .....

25 February 1875, pg. 1, col. 8.
Forcing the Color Line.
From the N. O. Picayune.
The Radicals in charge of our public schools seem determined upon
pushing the matter of color, when they know full well that even in the civil
rights bill which is now before Congress the clause about the schools have
been eliminated. (...)

26 May 1875, pg. 2., col. 2.
The Color Line.
(...) We are opposed to the color line as an original proposition.

1 September 1875, pg. 2, col. 3.
The Color Line.
...not because he is qualified or will be of the least service to that
District or to any human being in it--but because he is a colored man. This
is what did it, and the white Radicals are now seeingand confessing who it is
that are drawing the color line.

8 September 1875, pg. 2, col. 7.
The Times and the Black Line.

29 March 1876, pg. 1., col. 3.
White Line Outrages.

SUMMARY: "Color line" is all over the place. It's in numerous headlines
from 1874-1876. The pathetic OED citation of 1878 completely ignores U.S.
history--such as the Civil War, Reconstruction, and the civil rights
amendments to the Constitution. The Dictionary of Americanisms, with only
one citation in 1875 before a jump to 1878, is little better. These brief
postings will hopefully result in an accurate treatment of "color line" and
its importance in American history.