Date: Tue, 4 Apr 1995 09:28:27 -0500
From: "Timothy C. Frazer" mftcf[AT SYMBOL GOES HERE]UXA.ECN.BGU.EDU
Subject: Re: need + past participle
On Tue, 4 Apr 1995, wachal robert s wrote:
This originates, I believe, in pennsylvania and is confined to midland
speech and perhaps to south midland since it is not heard in the southern
half of Iowa (north midland).
Someone who is better versed in regional dialectology than I can probably
give a definitive answer. Am surprised that none such have appeared as yet.
Tom Murray, Beth Simon and I have collected three kinds of data on this.
One was an informal query that went out over internet (ADS-L, LINGUIST
and others) about fourteen months ago. We got almost 20 responses, three
from Scotland, one from northern ireland, 6 from Pennsylvania, one from
upstate NY, 2 from Ohio, one each from w. New York, s. Indiana, c. Ill.,
c. Idaho, 2 from Utah.
I collected 200 evaluative responses (mostly students) in the n. half of
Ill.; the distribution pretty much reflects Roger Shuys old (PADS 1962)
Murray collected over 5000 evaluative reponses throughout LANCS and LAUM
plus Kansas and Missouri. His findings also tend to reinforce the old
northern-midland boundaries drawn from linguistic atlas data; the
"needs" construction with past participle distributes like tradtional
midland diagnostic items (e.g., "bucket" or _greasy_ as [grizi]).
Tom's data don't fit with your obersvationthat this does not occur in s.
Iowa. If your experience is mostly confined to Iowa city, that would be
one explanation; university towns, even those in a largely rural
settings, often do not reflect everything that is going on, even if you
begin to get the impression that you are hearing a lot of vernacular.
I lived in macomb for 30 years before I knew that some people in this
area used aspectual "done."
I think it also safe to say that the farther south in Iowa you go, the
morelikely you will be to hear it, if you make some allowances for the
uniqueness of some individual communities.